Roots of the Vietnam War
France controlled Vietnam before WWII, and America supported their efforts to regain control. Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Vietnamese Communist Party, snuck back into Vietnam during WWII and declared independence in 1945, creating the Vietminh freedom fighters.
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1. CHAPTER 22 VIETNAM MR. ALLEN
3. Vietnam: French Rule • France controlled Vietnam before WWII – Japanese occupation during the war • France fought to get Vietnam back • America supports French control
6. Ho Chi Minh • Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party – Led from exile in China since 1920’s • Snuck back into Vietnam during WWII – Declared independence in 1945 • Creates Vietminh : Freedom fighters
7. Ho Chi Minh
8. France fights in Indochina (1945- 1954) • Tries to keep their colony – U.S. sends money • Ho Chi Minh flees and fights from the North • U.S. Afraid of Domino Theory – If one country falls, all others around will fall • French defeated at Dien Bien Phu (5/54)
9. Vietnam Split in two • North controlled by communists • South run by Ngo Dinh Diem • Vietcong fights in the South – Communists supported by Ho Chi Minh – Assassinated thousands of gov’t leaders • Kennedy sends 16,000 Americans to Nam – 1961
12. Diem is unpopular • South Vietnamese hate him • He attacks Buddhism • No land reform • Corrupt • U.S. supprts coup, Diem assassinated – Nov 1, 1963
13. Section 22.2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation
15. Tonkin Gulf Resolution • Aug 1964: NVA boat fires on USS Maddox – Not hit • Maddox reports more gunfire – Later said they saw nothing • LBJ orders bombing strikes on N. Vietnam • Asks Congress for military authority
16. Robert McNamara: Sec of Defense
18. US Escalation • 1965: 180,000 US soldiers in Vietnam • Gen. Westmoreland calls for more troops – Says ARVN can’t fight very well • 500,000 troops by 1967
19. Jungle Fighting • Hit and run guerilla warfare • Hiding in cities, spies everywhere • Tunnels throughout the country • Booby traps all over the jungle
22. American tactics • Use of napalm to firebomb the jungles • Agent Orange: Leaf killing toxin – Cancer-causing agent • Search and destroy missions – Destroy villages with suspected NVA spies
26. War becomes unpopular • Protest movements sprout up • College youth and left-leaning Americans • Protests became resistance
27. THINK/PAIR/SHARE • Who should be exempt form the draft? • Should people who believe the war is wrong be forced to fight?
30. LBJ doesn’t run in ‘68 • He is unpopular, war is unpopular • Robert Kennedy runs for president – Going to win Democratic nomination – Assassinated in Los Angeles • Nixon defeats VP Humphrey
32. “Peace with honor” • Slow pull out of Vietnam – 1968: 500,000 troops – 1972: 25,000 troops • USA pulls out of the war, 1973 • South falls to the communists, 1975