Periodic Table Families: Predicting Properties and Behaviors of Elements

Periodic Table Families: Predicting Properties and Behaviors of Elements
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1PERIODIC TABLE FAMILIES The is a way of organizing information about elements amp atomic structure The Periodic Table PT is a way of organizing information about elements amp atomic structu

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Slide11PERIODIC TABLE FAMILIES  The  is  a  way  of organizing  information  about  elements  & atomic  structure  The  Periodic Table (PT)  is  a  way  of organizing  information  about  elements  & atomic  structure  in  the  PT  help  us predict  properties  of  elements  and  how they  will  behave  Groups and families  in  the  PT  help  us predict  properties  of  elements  and  how they  will  behave

Slide22GROUPS  Elements  that  react  similarly are  in  the  same  column called  a  group  Elements  that  react  similarly are  in  the  same  column called  a  group  All  elements  in  a  group  have the  same  number  of  valence electrons  All  elements  in  a  group  have the  same  number  of  valence electrons  Groups  are  named  by numbers  Groups  are  named  by numbers  Groups  that  react  similarly are  called   Groups  that  react  similarly are  called  families

Slide33FAMILIES  Groups  that  react  similarly  are called   Groups  that  react  similarly  are called  families  be  one  column,  or several  columns  put  together  Families may  be  one  column,  or several  columns  put  together  Families  have  names  instead  of numbers  Families  have  names  instead  of numbers

Slide44FAMILIES   Alkali Metals   Alkaline Earth Metals   Transitions Metals (includes Lanthanide & Actinide series)   Other Metals  Metalloids  Nonmetals  Halogens  Noble Gases EIGHT  FAMILIES!

Slide5ALKALI METALS  Group 1 (except H)   1 valence electron Very reactive  metals, Always combined  with another element in nature (like salt)   Lowest ionization energy   2 nd  lowest electronegativity

Slide6ALKALINE EARTH METALS  Group 2   2 valence electrons Reactive metals Always combined with nonmetals  in nature.   Several are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca)   2 nd  lowest ionization energy   3 rd  lowest electronegativity

Slide7TRANSITION METALS Groups 3 - 12  2-7 valence electrons less reactive, harder, malleable good conductors of electricity  Average ionization energy  Average electronegativity

Slide8TRANSITION METALS:LANTHANIDES & ACTINIDES   1-2 Valence electrons   Lanthanide all can be found in nature; only 1 radioactive   Actinide all radioactive & only 90-92 occur naturally (others all “man-made”)

Slide9OTHER METALS  3, 4, or 5 Valence electrons   Softer; lower boiling point  than transition metals;   4 th  highest ionization energy   3 rd  highest electronegativity

Slide1010METALLOIDS (SEIMICONDUCTORS)   3,4,5,or 6 Valence electrons   Acts like metal around non-metals; acts like non-metal around metals   Has some, but not all the CHEMICAL properties of a metal   Used for computer chips & solar panels

Slide1111NONMETALS  1, 4, 5, or 6 valence electrons  Brittle; Poor conductors of electricity  Common element in human body Necessary for life!!  3 rd  highest ionization energy  2 nd  highest electronegativity

Slide12HALOGENS  Group 17   7 valence electrons Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals Always found combined with another element in nature   Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth   2 nd  highest ionization energy   Highest electronegativity

Slide13NOBLE/INERT GASES  Group 18   8 valence electrons full valence energy levels make them VERY unreactive (inert), monatomic gases   Used in lighted “neon” signs and in blimps   Highest ionization energy   Lowest electronegativity